яну 022013

Sometimes you can quickly lose sight of what is important. Given the horrendous national debt of € 1,973,913,626,707 (01.09.2011 at 09:00 clock), it comes to the healthy budget! In the medium to long-term perspective, the structural budget deficit is crucial.

For a sustainable consolidation of public budgets can be meaningfully refer only to a reduction in the structural deficit financing, i.e., adjusted for cyclical effects and one-off measures primary deficit. After structural terms in 2007 and 2008, a balanced general government budget has been reached. primary-surplus1The primary deficit rose to 0.5% significantly in 2009 and -1.3% in 2010. This increase is due to the reduction in the contribution rate for unemployment insurance, which caused in-force of the corporate tax reform, the unsustainable revenue losses because of stimulus programs and the so-called “pension guarantee”.

With the planned tax cuts of the coalition parties, it is therefore important that these be financed structural and not based on adverse economic pump. It is for an ideally by restraint of the state, by reducing expenditure. A first important and courageous step, for example, would be the repeal of regulatory policy and economically questionable subsidies.

The so-called “Koch-Steinbrück list” here provides some useful 10 and twenty and fifty pound notessuggestions for spending cuts and numerous examples that have led to windfall gains. The reduction in the structural general government deficit is aimed at achieving long-term goals. In particular the need to avoid excessive burden on future generations. Precisely on this, policymakers should look for in the discussion of the counter-financing of tax cuts.

This debate is necessary not least in view of the constitutional right of the debt ceiling. The federal government provides for an upper limit of the structural debt of 0.35% of GDP from 2016 and for the countries from the year 2020. The State shall regulate the functioning of social life. The rest of it should be left to the people, but they need of purchasing power.

It is not about any counter-financing, which in turn provide is a risk, when the funding source is low or absent in the future. Economic problems need to be solved completely.

яну 022013

This book could go down as one of the most elegant job writing the story for the top job at the IMF. It comes to the renewal of the world economy – well and clearly written, inspiring, anecdotal and quite self-critical. Just a pity that its findings were formulated too often only as working hypotheses and thus appear rather academic.

Brown is convinced that it is globalizationthe economies will succeed only through global cooperation and coordination. In this way will achieve a growth level in the coming years that exceeds the current assumptions. Let us suppose that a globally binding and this is a new mechanism for crisis. Such an instrument would allow an active and transparent monitoring. For example, it can be modern investor networks, in which creditor countries to engage in an open dialogue, provide greater visibility and control.

The world economic problems for Brown structural in nature are related to the need to boost consumption, consumer-spending decline. A return of strong global demand levels for him without global growth plan is not possible. Americans need to increase the opportunities for their people and to invest more in education and training. China should make social protection of its workers and affordable housing for the people cheaper.

In addition to the land reform, the lending practices of its banks, and open the world’s market for financial services. India and the Asian economies need to invest more in developing its infrastructure systems that enhance the quality global-economyof education and skills and better control debt and deficits. Russia’s two-class society with financially strong state and weak private sector can only through diversification away from oil and gas through a program of economic reform and hope for a sustainable higher growth level that is independent of volatile raw materials.

Finally, the author gives the advice to invest more abroad than ever to increase savings or consumption in their own country. Please refer to Brown, son of a Scottish pastor, ultimately the social component. Social and economic issues are inextricably linked. “In the 21st Century need to market and state support of ethical standards”, he writes.

яну 022013

The news came as a surprise. The Swiss National Bank communicates a clear exchange rate ceiling, which binds the Swiss franc to the euro, de facto. It so highly and passionately defended monetary policy autonomy. This happens at a time when the European Central Bank through purchases of government securities it has lost credibility.

In a situation of immense global excess liquidity, the dogma of the profitability of flexible exchange rates began shake its positions. The decision of the Swiss National Bank is based on the following five reasons.


First, the negative economic effects are avoided, resulting from loss of competition for the Swiss export industry, the tourism industry and the retail trade.

Second, it comes to speculative capital inflows, inspired by the global liquidity glut on an appreciation of the Swiss franc. Henceforth, speculators cannot generate quick profits more from the easy to forecast appreciation of the franc.

Thirdly, the liquidity expansion avoided, resulting from speculative capital inflows and form the breeding ground for inflation and speculative bubbles.

Fourth, the Swiss National Bank needs to defend the currency peg their independence. It avoids further losses on their equity, resulting from appreciation of the franc from the revaluation of the significant currency reserves. The government could have pushed as consideration in the interest of currency-damaged sectors, the central bank to cut interest rates and / or exchange rate stabilization.

Fifth, the esteemed monetary policy autonomy was never very big anyway. monetary-policyThe Swiss interest rates followed, as the picture shows, with a cautious distance the prime rate in regards the euro area. Despite these clear advantages of a Euro-bond, the decision of the Swiss National Bank is to provide only short-term euro bond as a breather.

It now been postponed because the European Central Bank was targeted to the new tensions in the European capital market. The re-monetary expansion is transmitted by the exchange rate directly to Switzerland. The resulting inflationary pressures are expressed in the rising Euro Swiss real reserves Switzerland. The neighbors from Switzerland have shown the way. Just act and not court the favor of the markets, as the anxious EU parliamentarians from Brussels.